New Trends and Paradigm Shifts in Pakistan and Pakistan-India Relations: Pakistan’s Perspective
Dr. Huma Baqai
Journal of International Relations and Foreign Policy, 1(1), pp. 55- 68.

Pakistan’s foreign policy is a story of constrains and compulsions rather than the leeway to exercise fair options. Its geographic location dictated, most of the choices it made, which also resulted in Pakistan getting entangled in super power rivalry. The last five plus years, Pakistan has faced the most serious challenges ever. This has resulted in several paradigm shifts and new trends that have emerged in the polity of Pakistan. These challenges can be turned into opportunities, if the new developments are consolidated. They may have a favorable impact on Pakistan itself and on its regional relations. The most prominent of these are the democratic transition in Pakistan, the changing Pakistan- US relationships, the situation in Afghanistan and imperatives of economic globalization. The paper takes into account and discusses their impact on Pak-India relations: Pakistan and India are on the dialogue table for the sixth time. This paper is an attempt to analyze how these paradigm shifts and new trends emerging in Pakistan, may actually result in sustainable better relations between the two protagonists of the region.

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Baqai, Dr. Huma. (2013). New Trends and Paradigm Shifts in Pakistan and Pakistan-India Relations: Pakistan’s Perspective. Journal of International Relations and Foreign Policy, 1(1), pp. 55- 68.

i Jawed Naqvi, Petrol to Fuel Pakistan-India quest for Peace, Dawn, 24 March 2012,

i Dawn, 28 July 2011, Pakistan, India revive search for enduring dialogue process,

ii William Zartman, “Ripeness: The Hurting Stalemate and Beyond”, (Last accessed on 28 February 2012)

iii Paul R. Hensel, Gary Gpertz, and Paul F. Diehl, “The Democratic Peace and Rivalries,” Journal of Politics, Vol. 64, No. 4, Nov 2000,

iv Zeev Maoz, “The Debate over the Democratic Peace: Rearguard Action or Cracks in the Wall?”, International Security, Vol. 32, 1997

v T.V.Paul,“The India-Pakistan Conflict: An Enduring Rivalry”, Cambridge: New York, 2005, pg 48-49

vi Ibid.

vii Ibid.

viii PILDAT Citizens Monitoring Report, “Performance of the parliamentary Committee on National security,” Time, March, 2012, (Accessed: March, 2012)

ix PILDAT, “Assessment of the quality of democracy in Pakistan,” Time, January-December, 2011, (Accessed: December, 2011)

x Opcit, Aqil Shah, pg. 7. Also repealed was article 112(2)(b) that empowered governors to dismiss provincial Governments

xi Sharon Behn, “Upcoming Pakistan Vote Signals Change in Civilian-Military Relations,” Time, March 27, 2013, 1629445.html

xii Aqeel Shah, “The Transition to ‘Guided’ Democracy in Pakistan”, (Last accessed on 27 February 2012)


xiv, Also see; Judicial Issues in Pakistan, IPRI

xv Air Marshal Asghar Khan, in 1996, had written a letter to then Chief Justice Nasim Hasan Shah against former army chief, General Mirza Aslam Baig, former ISI chief Lieutenant General Asad Durrani and Younis Habib of Habib and Mehran Banks, relating to the disbursement of public money and its misuse for political purposes. On the basis of Asghar Khan’s petition, Lieutenant General (Retd.) Asad Durrani took the stand in the Supreme Court and provided an affidavit that the army had indeed distributed Pak Rs. 140 million to anti-PPP political candidates only a few months before the October 1990 general election. See also Pakistan Observer xvi“Hearing of Asghar Khan case adjourned till 8 March”, Dawn 29 February 2012, (Last accessed on 29 February 2012)


xviii U.S. Image in Pakistan Falls No Further Following bin Laden Killing, Global Attitudes Project, Pew Research Center (Last Accessed: March 2, 2012)

xix “Fatalities in Terrorist Violence in Pakistan 2003-2013,” Time, April 7, 2013,

xx Daily Times

xxi Huma Baqai, “Secularism: An Option for Pakistan”, International Journal of Business and Social Sciences, Vol.2, No.3, Jan 2011,

xxii Ibid.

xxiii Jayshree Bajoria, “The ISI and Terrorism: Behind the Accusations”, Council on Foreign Relations, May 4, 2011,

xxiv Barry Buzan and Ole Weaver, “Regions and Power, the structure of International Security”. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, pg 118-122

xxv Time to Get Rid of Strategic Depth Hangover, Dawn March 3, 2012, rid-of-strategic-depth-hangover-khar.html

xxvi Aurobinda Mahapatra, Paradigm shift in India Pakistan Relations, November 5, 2011 http://www.strategicculture. org/news/2011/11/05/paradigm-shift-in-india-pakistan-relations.html

xxvii “India hails Pakistan decision on trade ties”, Dawn, March 2, 2012, decision-on-trade-ties.html

Name : Huma Baqai
Office Address : IBA Main Campus, University Road,
Karachi: IBA City Campus Garden/Kiyani Shaheed
Road Karachi, Pakistan